logo

logo

Admissions Information
Application and any transcripts are to be submitted directly to:
The Graduate School Madonna University
36600 Schoolcraft Road
Livonia, Michigan 48150-1176
(734) 432-5667 or (800) 852-4951, ext. 5667
Fax (734) 432-5862
Email: grad@madonna.edu

MAPM Pastoral Ministry | Bereavement Cognate | Criminal Justice Cognate | Hospice Cognate | Pastoral Ministry Cognate
Print logo
MAPM Pastoral Ministry    
   MPM Core Courses    
      MPM 5000   Prophets & Preprophetic Ministry 2 s.h.  A review of Old Testament prophets, their role and impact on the transmission of God’s message to His people over the ages. Study includes literary, historical, and spiritual dimensions of the role of “prophet” as conveyor of truth; challenges and obstacles faced and overcome; and the evaluation of prophecy authenticity over the span of time. 
      MPM 5050   Gospel Writers: Gospel Writing 2 s.h.  Examination of the presentations of the Life and Mission of Jesus Christ through the works of the four gospel writers, from the Old Testament fulfillment through the ascension. The Synoptic Question through the study of witness, ministry, and faith is compared to Johanine Christological and eschatological revelation and examined from diverse approaches, including rabbinical teaching, tradition, and canonical/noncanonical works. 
      MPM 5100   Ministerial Identity & Pastoral Skills 3 s.h.  Introduction to the role of ministerial discipleship: the requirements for effective leadership, beginning with required background history of the minister, development of skills in effective communication techniques, personal integrity, psychological preparation, respect for diversity, response to needs of special groups, team approaches to community dilemmas, and involvement of professional services to support and broaden effectiveness of ministerial service. A minimum of 30 hours of mentored field experience is required. 
      MPM 5225   Fransciscan Themes:Justice, Peace & Christian Conscience 2 s.h.  Based on the life and ideals of Francis of Assisi: a study of the foundations for social morality, major social issues (e.g., peace, war, poverty, reconstruction of social structures, effects of violence/ prejudice/ racism, etc.), and the ministerial response of the informed Christian conscience. 
      MPM 6600   Praxis Colloquy & Defense 3 s.h.  This capstone course will include three in-class meetings plus a mentored onsite praxis (140 hours) in one's chosen field. The praxis may span one or two terms and will conclude with the presentation and defense of a written work of original systematic research which includes the substantive exposition of the theoretical basis and rationale of the subject, together with a demonstration of familarity with the appropriate scholarly and professional dimensions of the chosen ministry. The written work may be rendered in one of three alternative forms: detailed and structured empirical field work; or a develoment of ministry praxis; or, an original creative artifact. ( (Core MAPM) 
      MPM Core Option           (2 s.h. to be chosen)    
         MPM 6010   Bioethics & Sexuality 2 s.h.  Contemporary issues of bioethics and human sexuality, including health care dilemmas, the beginning and end of life; genetics, human experimentation, artificial reproduction, et. al., examined in the light of principles and norms of Sacred Scripture. 
         MPM 6020   Public Issues & Christian Moralty 2 s.h.  Study of the relationship between Christian ethics and daily life, following a review of major ethical themes: e.g., conscience, sin, Scripture and the moral life, natural law, authority, and fidelity. 
         MPM 6030   Values: Biblical & Modern 2 s.h.  Modern ethical principles studied against Scriptural backgrounds. Demonstration of the underlying value of the Decalogue and discussion of Absolutism and Subjectivism; Social Convention and Natural Law. 
      One Cognate Needed    
Bereavement Cognate    
   Required Cognate Courses    
      HSP 5200   Grieving Family Systems 3 s.h.  The application of knowledge about the complexity of dynamics as they occur in grieving families following the death of a loved one, preparing students to be effective helpers in the field of hospice bereavement. Theoretical foundations include family systems theory, family developmental theory, family communication theory, and grief theories as they specifically address the growth potential from grief and how loss affects individual and family development over time. Students explore their own family-of-origin loss experiences through analysis of case studies, popular cultural portrayal of loss in videos and music, and selected experimental activities such as relaxation, meditation, and journaling. 
      HSP 5300   Dimensions of Complicated Grief 3 s.h.  Examination of dimensions of complicated grief with special attention to assessment, diagnosis, intervention, current research, and community referral resources. The factors involved in the increased number of individuals and families experiencing complicated or unresolved grief are explored, such as the incidence of murder, suicide, accidental death, the death of infants and children, pre-existing psychiatric disorders of the bereaved, and dysfunctional family dynamics. 
      HSP 5400   Developing Comprehensive Bereavement Programs 3 s.h.  Examination of the wide range of services that may be offered to the community, ranging from basic bereavement support, to professional grief therapy and patient hospitalization, so as to prepare students to develop a comprehensive bereavement program that takes into consideration limited resources while delivering quality grief services. Content includes assessing hospice and community bereavement needs, staffing patterns, community referral resources, and program development in various aftercare settings. 
      MPM Brmt Electives        (9 s.h. to be chosen)    
         HSP 5000   History & Philosophy of Hospice 3 s.h.  The historical events, religious, cultural, and social forces that have shaped the global hospice systems from inception to the present time. Emphasis is on the hospice philosophy of care with its humanistic and interdisciplinary approach by team members. 
         HSP 5010   Dimensions of Bereavement: Theory, Research & Practice 3 s.h.  Identification and examination of current and emerging bereavement theories, emphasizing transdisciplinary clinical application with grieving individuals and families. The grieving process as a progression of coping, management, and growth through significant losses and life transitions. Skill development in designing effective coping strategies that facilitate healing in families and communities. Intended for persons desiring to work in palliative/end-of-life care settings and related health care and human service fields. Corequisite or prerequisite: HSP 5000. 
         HSP 5800   Current Trends & Topics in Hospice 3 s.h.  Study of current topics, issues, and trends relevant to hospice leaders and professionals. Courses may be offered in a workshop, seminar, or independent research format. Corequisite or prerequisite: HSP 5000. 
         HSP 6000   Advanced Holistic Palliative Care 3 s.h.  Focus on comprehensive holistic palliative care for the terminally ill and their families. Examination of the interrelatedness between the various types of pain experienced by the dying patient and the impact on the family and hospice staff. Multidimensional aspects of pain are discussed in theoretical and practical perspectives. A research-based approach is used to synthesize palliative care within the hospice care delivery system. Prerequisite or corequisite: HSP 5000. 
         HSP 6010   Ethical & Legal Issues in End-of-Life Care 3 s.h.  Development of a framework, in seminar/discussion, for analyzing ethical and legal issues in the delivery of end-of-life care and making end-of-life care decisions. Includes the examination of cross-cultural beliefs and practices related to end-of-life care as a basis for ethical decision making in hospice care. 
         HSP 6020   Hospice Seminar/Practicum 3 s.h.  Concurrent seminar and practicum experience. The synthesis of hospice concepts and theories related to selected hospice functions and roles of the team members, with examination of a variety of issues which impact on the team members’ roles in a hospice agency. In the practicum, the student observes and further examines the impact of various strategies of role enactment. The seminar is focused on student-centered topics from the practicum experience and allows for communication, discussion, and sharing among students and professor. Corequisite or prerequisite: HSP 5000. 
      MPM Electives             (2 s.h. to be chosen)    
         MPM 5025   Contemporary Prophets: Their Lives & Their Messages 2 s.h.  Vibrant examples of men and women of today whose lives testify that prophets are not a thing of the past. A challenging course in which students review the lives of contemporary “prophets” as they search their own minds and lives to discover the gifts and opportunities that beset them in their efforts to put their faith into action. 
         MPM 5060   Models of Ministry in the Pauline Corpus 2 s.h.  An exploration of the historical Paul beginning with a reconstruction of his life, the series of events that contributed to his conversion, his writings, his ministerial efforts, and his reception by the early church in the first two centuries. A critical study of ancient texts as well as the introduction and use of numerous contemporary methodologies exploring themes such as law and liberty, leadership and service, justice and mercy, and freedom and license. 
         MPM 5125   Spirituality & Faith Development 2 s.h.  Focus on the need for ongoing faith development throughout life as applied to service and ministry. Study of practical examples of types of cross-cultural ministerial service through teaching, counseling, empathetic listening, liturgy, and prayer. 
         MPM 5140   Christian Spiritualities 2 s.h.  A study of past and contemporary Christians whose lives have served to inspire and direct others to a greater love of God and neighbor: Augustine, John Vianney, Dietrich Bonhoffer, Teresa of Calcutta, Dr. Tom Dooley, John Bosco, et. al. 
         MPM 5510   Women & Ministry 2 s.h.  The impact of women like Francis Cabrini, Corrie and Betsie ten Boom, Edith Stein, Teresa of Calcutta, Cicely Saunders, et. al. who by their commitment to others lived the mandate of love. Application of their contributions to contemporary challenges faced in ministry. 
         MPM 5560   Pastoral Care Across Cultures 2 s.h.  Practical preparation for cross-cultural ministry. Study of the impact of culture on tradition, prayer styles and worship, language, role of the sick/elderly, disenfranchised, as well as gender, education, and economics. Exposure to local practices of employment and service opportunities, and development of profiles for future use are included. 
         MPM 5730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 5750   Special Topics 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 6 s.h.)  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
         MPM 6040   Leadership & Authority 2 s.h.  A study of diverse dimensions of occasional offices that minister to life’s journeys and passages: initiation, conscience formation, reconciliation, counseling/direction, and other forms of spiritual mentoring, to persons of all ages and backgrounds, including the disenfranchised, the incarcerated, and the alienated. 
         MPM 6730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 6750   Special Topics 1 s.h.  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
Criminal Justice Cognate    
   Required Cognate Courses    
      CJ  5010   Criminal Justice Organization & Administration 3 s.h.  The organization and management of the various criminal justice agencies throughout the United States. Includes systems of management, substance abuse as a management problem, and systems analyses and their relationships. 
      CJ  5020   The Criminal Justice System 3 s.h.  An overview of the criminal justice system in the United States. Topics include the history of law enforcement, the political, sociological, and philosophical background of police functions, and the courts and corrections system. Constitutional problems as they relate to the police function are surveyed, and the use of recent technology in criminal justice is explored. Each student conducts a seminar on an issue related to our changing criminal justice system as a result of the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, and follow-up legislation. 
      CJ  5210   Corrections Process 3 s.h.  Examination of the adult corrections component of the criminal justice system, its history, philosophy and practice at the local, state, and federal levels of government. Discussion of alternatives to incarceration, such as parole, probation, and community corrections. A research project is assigned and the student must lead a class discussion related to the issues researched. 
      CJ  5230   Juvenile Justice 3 s.h.  Study of the legal and philosophical basis of the juvenile justice process, along with a review of the juvenile court procedures in Michigan and an examination of theories related to juvenile delinquency. A field assignment within the juvenile justice system is required, and students must document their experiences and share them with fellow students in an oral presentation. 
      MPM Electives             (8 s.h. to be chosen)    
         MPM 5025   Contemporary Prophets: Their Lives & Their Messages 2 s.h.  Vibrant examples of men and women of today whose lives testify that prophets are not a thing of the past. A challenging course in which students review the lives of contemporary “prophets” as they search their own minds and lives to discover the gifts and opportunities that beset them in their efforts to put their faith into action. 
         MPM 5060   Models of Ministry in the Pauline Corpus 2 s.h.  An exploration of the historical Paul beginning with a reconstruction of his life, the series of events that contributed to his conversion, his writings, his ministerial efforts, and his reception by the early church in the first two centuries. A critical study of ancient texts as well as the introduction and use of numerous contemporary methodologies exploring themes such as law and liberty, leadership and service, justice and mercy, and freedom and license. 
         MPM 5125   Spirituality & Faith Development 2 s.h.  Focus on the need for ongoing faith development throughout life as applied to service and ministry. Study of practical examples of types of cross-cultural ministerial service through teaching, counseling, empathetic listening, liturgy, and prayer. 
         MPM 5140   Christian Spiritualities 2 s.h.  A study of past and contemporary Christians whose lives have served to inspire and direct others to a greater love of God and neighbor: Augustine, John Vianney, Dietrich Bonhoffer, Teresa of Calcutta, Dr. Tom Dooley, John Bosco, et. al. 
         MPM 5440   Grief Ministry 2 s.h.  Introduction to “Pastoral Care of the Sick”, with emphasis on ministry to grieving persons as a result of illness, death, domestic/personal violation, or criminal behavior. Presentation of the role of the minister in situations that involve cooperative communication and support of health care and law enforcement agencies. 
         MPM 5510   Women & Ministry 2 s.h.  The impact of women like Francis Cabrini, Corrie and Betsie ten Boom, Edith Stein, Teresa of Calcutta, Cicely Saunders, et. al. who by their commitment to others lived the mandate of love. Application of their contributions to contemporary challenges faced in ministry. 
         MPM 5560   Pastoral Care Across Cultures 2 s.h.  Practical preparation for cross-cultural ministry. Study of the impact of culture on tradition, prayer styles and worship, language, role of the sick/elderly, disenfranchised, as well as gender, education, and economics. Exposure to local practices of employment and service opportunities, and development of profiles for future use are included. 
         MPM 5730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 5750   Special Topics 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 6 s.h.)  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
         MPM 6040   Leadership & Authority 2 s.h.  A study of diverse dimensions of occasional offices that minister to life’s journeys and passages: initiation, conscience formation, reconciliation, counseling/direction, and other forms of spiritual mentoring, to persons of all ages and backgrounds, including the disenfranchised, the incarcerated, and the alienated. 
         MPM 6730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 6750   Special Topics 1 s.h.  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
Hospice Cognate    
   Required Cognate Courses    
      HSP 5000   History & Philosophy of Hospice 3 s.h.  The historical events, religious, cultural, and social forces that have shaped the global hospice systems from inception to the present time. Emphasis is on the hospice philosophy of care with its humanistic and interdisciplinary approach by team members. 
      HSP 5010   Dimensions of Bereavement: Theory, Research & Practice 3 s.h.  Identification and examination of current and emerging bereavement theories, emphasizing transdisciplinary clinical application with grieving individuals and families. The grieving process as a progression of coping, management, and growth through significant losses and life transitions. Skill development in designing effective coping strategies that facilitate healing in families and communities. Intended for persons desiring to work in palliative/end-of-life care settings and related health care and human service fields. Corequisite or prerequisite: HSP 5000. 
      HSP 6000   Advanced Holistic Palliative Care 3 s.h.  Focus on comprehensive holistic palliative care for the terminally ill and their families. Examination of the interrelatedness between the various types of pain experienced by the dying patient and the impact on the family and hospice staff. Multidimensional aspects of pain are discussed in theoretical and practical perspectives. A research-based approach is used to synthesize palliative care within the hospice care delivery system. Prerequisite or corequisite: HSP 5000. 
      HSP 6010   Ethical & Legal Issues in End-of-Life Care 3 s.h.  Development of a framework, in seminar/discussion, for analyzing ethical and legal issues in the delivery of end-of-life care and making end-of-life care decisions. Includes the examination of cross-cultural beliefs and practices related to end-of-life care as a basis for ethical decision making in hospice care. 
      MPM Electives             (8 s.h. to be chosen)    
         MPM 5025   Contemporary Prophets: Their Lives & Their Messages 2 s.h.  Vibrant examples of men and women of today whose lives testify that prophets are not a thing of the past. A challenging course in which students review the lives of contemporary “prophets” as they search their own minds and lives to discover the gifts and opportunities that beset them in their efforts to put their faith into action. 
         MPM 5060   Models of Ministry in the Pauline Corpus 2 s.h.  An exploration of the historical Paul beginning with a reconstruction of his life, the series of events that contributed to his conversion, his writings, his ministerial efforts, and his reception by the early church in the first two centuries. A critical study of ancient texts as well as the introduction and use of numerous contemporary methodologies exploring themes such as law and liberty, leadership and service, justice and mercy, and freedom and license. 
         MPM 5125   Spirituality & Faith Development 2 s.h.  Focus on the need for ongoing faith development throughout life as applied to service and ministry. Study of practical examples of types of cross-cultural ministerial service through teaching, counseling, empathetic listening, liturgy, and prayer. 
         MPM 5140   Christian Spiritualities 2 s.h.  A study of past and contemporary Christians whose lives have served to inspire and direct others to a greater love of God and neighbor: Augustine, John Vianney, Dietrich Bonhoffer, Teresa of Calcutta, Dr. Tom Dooley, John Bosco, et. al. 
         MPM 5440   Grief Ministry 2 s.h.  Introduction to “Pastoral Care of the Sick”, with emphasis on ministry to grieving persons as a result of illness, death, domestic/personal violation, or criminal behavior. Presentation of the role of the minister in situations that involve cooperative communication and support of health care and law enforcement agencies. 
         MPM 5510   Women & Ministry 2 s.h.  The impact of women like Francis Cabrini, Corrie and Betsie ten Boom, Edith Stein, Teresa of Calcutta, Cicely Saunders, et. al. who by their commitment to others lived the mandate of love. Application of their contributions to contemporary challenges faced in ministry. 
         MPM 5560   Pastoral Care Across Cultures 2 s.h.  Practical preparation for cross-cultural ministry. Study of the impact of culture on tradition, prayer styles and worship, language, role of the sick/elderly, disenfranchised, as well as gender, education, and economics. Exposure to local practices of employment and service opportunities, and development of profiles for future use are included. 
         MPM 5730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 5750   Special Topics 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 6 s.h.)  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
         MPM 6040   Leadership & Authority 2 s.h.  A study of diverse dimensions of occasional offices that minister to life’s journeys and passages: initiation, conscience formation, reconciliation, counseling/direction, and other forms of spiritual mentoring, to persons of all ages and backgrounds, including the disenfranchised, the incarcerated, and the alienated. 
         MPM 6730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 6750   Special Topics 1 s.h.  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
Pastoral Ministry Cognate    
   Required Cognate Courses    
      MPM 5440   Grief Ministry 2 s.h.  Introduction to “Pastoral Care of the Sick”, with emphasis on ministry to grieving persons as a result of illness, death, domestic/personal violation, or criminal behavior. Presentation of the role of the minister in situations that involve cooperative communication and support of health care and law enforcement agencies. 
      MPM Electives             (18 s.h. to be chosen)    
         MPM 5025   Contemporary Prophets: Their Lives & Their Messages 2 s.h.  Vibrant examples of men and women of today whose lives testify that prophets are not a thing of the past. A challenging course in which students review the lives of contemporary “prophets” as they search their own minds and lives to discover the gifts and opportunities that beset them in their efforts to put their faith into action. 
         MPM 5060   Models of Ministry in the Pauline Corpus 2 s.h.  An exploration of the historical Paul beginning with a reconstruction of his life, the series of events that contributed to his conversion, his writings, his ministerial efforts, and his reception by the early church in the first two centuries. A critical study of ancient texts as well as the introduction and use of numerous contemporary methodologies exploring themes such as law and liberty, leadership and service, justice and mercy, and freedom and license. 
         MPM 5125   Spirituality & Faith Development 2 s.h.  Focus on the need for ongoing faith development throughout life as applied to service and ministry. Study of practical examples of types of cross-cultural ministerial service through teaching, counseling, empathetic listening, liturgy, and prayer. 
         MPM 5140   Christian Spiritualities 2 s.h.  A study of past and contemporary Christians whose lives have served to inspire and direct others to a greater love of God and neighbor: Augustine, John Vianney, Dietrich Bonhoffer, Teresa of Calcutta, Dr. Tom Dooley, John Bosco, et. al. 
         MPM 5440   Grief Ministry 2 s.h.  Introduction to “Pastoral Care of the Sick”, with emphasis on ministry to grieving persons as a result of illness, death, domestic/personal violation, or criminal behavior. Presentation of the role of the minister in situations that involve cooperative communication and support of health care and law enforcement agencies. 
         MPM 5510   Women & Ministry 2 s.h.  The impact of women like Francis Cabrini, Corrie and Betsie ten Boom, Edith Stein, Teresa of Calcutta, Cicely Saunders, et. al. who by their commitment to others lived the mandate of love. Application of their contributions to contemporary challenges faced in ministry. 
         MPM 5560   Pastoral Care Across Cultures 2 s.h.  Practical preparation for cross-cultural ministry. Study of the impact of culture on tradition, prayer styles and worship, language, role of the sick/elderly, disenfranchised, as well as gender, education, and economics. Exposure to local practices of employment and service opportunities, and development of profiles for future use are included. 
         MPM 5730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 5750   Special Topics 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 6 s.h.)  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
         MPM 6040   Leadership & Authority 2 s.h.  A study of diverse dimensions of occasional offices that minister to life’s journeys and passages: initiation, conscience formation, reconciliation, counseling/direction, and other forms of spiritual mentoring, to persons of all ages and backgrounds, including the disenfranchised, the incarcerated, and the alienated. 
         MPM 6730   Independent Study/Research 1 s.h. (Not To Exceed 2 s.h.)  Students either individually or in colleague groups, under the direction of a faculty member, design, and carry out investigative independent studies of approved topics. May be repeated for credit. 
         MPM 6750   Special Topics 1 s.h.  Special topics seminars (1s.h.) will be offered as electives for persons in any of the chosen formats of the MAPM program. Upon completion of MAPM courses 5000, 5050, and 5100, students - either individually or in colleague groups - and under the direction of a faculty member, will have the option of investigative independent study/research of topics offered or approved. 
Print logo